Database Configuration

CodeIgniter has a config file that lets you store your database connection values (username, password, database name, etc.). The config file is located at application/Config/Database.php. You can also set database connection values in the .env file. See below for more details.

The config settings are stored in a class property that is an array with this prototype:

public $default = [
        'DSN'      => '',
        'hostname' => 'localhost',
        'username' => 'root',
        'password' => '',
        'database' => 'database_name',
        'DBDriver' => 'MySQLi',
        'DBPrefix' => '',
        'pConnect' => TRUE,
        'DBDebug'  => TRUE,
        'cacheOn'  => FALSE,
        'cacheDir' => '',
        'charset'  => 'utf8',
        'DBCollat' => 'utf8_general_ci',
        'swapPre'  => '',
        'encrypt'  => FALSE,
        'compress' => FALSE,
        'strictOn' => FALSE,
        'failover' => array(),
];

The name of the class property is the connection name, and can be used while connecting to specify a group name.

Some database drivers (such as PDO, PostgreSQL, Oracle, ODBC) might require a full DSN string to be provided. If that is the case, you should use the ‘DSN’ configuration setting, as if you’re using the driver’s underlying native PHP extension, like this:

// PDO
$default['DSN'] = 'pgsql:host=localhost;port=5432;dbname=database_name';

// Oracle
$default['DSN'] = '//localhost/XE';

Note

If you do not specify a DSN string for a driver that requires it, CodeIgniter will try to build it with the rest of the provided settings.

Note

If you provide a DSN string and it is missing some valid settings (e.g. the database character set), which are present in the rest of the configuration fields, CodeIgniter will append them.

You can also specify failovers for the situation when the main connection cannot connect for some reason. These failovers can be specified by setting the failover for a connection like this:

$default['failover'] = [
                [
                        'hostname' => 'localhost1',
                        'username' => '',
                        'password' => '',
                        'database' => '',
                        'DBDriver' => 'MySQLi',
                        'DBPrefix' => '',
                        'pConnect' => TRUE,
                        'DBDebug'  => TRUE,
                        'cacheOn'  => FALSE,
                        'cacheDir' => '',
                        'charset'  => 'utf8',
                        'DBCollat' => 'utf8_general_ci',
                        'swapPre'  => '',
                        'encrypt'  => FALSE,
                        'compress' => FALSE,
                        'strictOn' => FALSE
                ],
                [
                        'hostname' => 'localhost2',
                        'username' => '',
                        'password' => '',
                        'database' => '',
                        'DBDriver' => 'MySQLi',
                        'DBPrefix' => '',
                        'pConnect' => TRUE,
                        'DBDebug'  => TRUE,
                        'cacheOn'  => FALSE,
                        'cacheDir' => '',
                        'charset'  => 'utf8',
                        'DBCollat' => 'utf8_general_ci',
                        'swapPre'  => '',
                        'encrypt'  => FALSE,
                        'compress' => FALSE,
                        'strictOn' => FALSE
                ]
        ];

You can specify as many failovers as you like.

You may optionally store multiple sets of connection values. If, for example, you run multiple environments (development, production, test, etc.) under a single installation, you can set up a connection group for each, then switch between groups as needed. For example, to set up a “test” environment you would do this:

public $test = [
        'DSN'      => '',
        'hostname' => 'localhost',
        'username' => 'root',
        'password' => '',
        'database' => 'database_name',
        'DBDriver' => 'MySQLi',
        'DBPrefix' => '',
        'pConnect' => TRUE,
        'DBDebug'  => TRUE,
        'cacheOn'  => FALSE,
        'cacheDir' => '',
        'charset'  => 'utf8',
        'DBCollat' => 'utf8_general_ci',
        'swapPre'  => '',
        'compress' => FALSE,
        'encrypt'  => FALSE,
        'strictOn' => FALSE,
        'failover' => array()
);

Then, to globally tell the system to use that group you would set this variable located in the config file:

$defaultGroup = 'test';

Note

The name ‘test’ is arbitrary. It can be anything you want. By default we’ve used the word “default” for the primary connection, but it too can be renamed to something more relevant to your project.

You could modify the config file to detect the environment and automatically update the defaultGroup value to the correct one by adding the required logic within the class’ constructor:

class Database
{
    public $development = [...];
    public $test        = [...];
    public $production  = [...];

        public function __construct()
        {
                $this->defaultGroup = ENVIRONMENT;
        }
}

Configuring With .env File

You can also save your configuration values within a .env file with the current server’s database settings. You only need to enter the values that change from what is in the default group’s configuration settings. The values should be name following this format, where default is the group name:

database.default.username = 'root';
database.default.password = '';
database.default.database = 'ci4';

As with all other

Explanation of Values:

Name Config Description
dsn The DSN connect string (an all-in-one configuration sequence).
hostname The hostname of your database server. Often this is ‘localhost’.
username The username used to connect to the database.
password The password used to connect to the database.
database The name of the database you want to connect to.
DBDriver The database type. eg: MySQLi, Postgre, etc. The case must match the driver name
DBPrefix An optional table prefix which will added to the table name when running Query Builder queries. This permits multiple CodeIgniter installations to share one database.
pConnect TRUE/FALSE (boolean) - Whether to use a persistent connection.
DBDebug TRUE/FALSE (boolean) - Whether database errors should be displayed.
cacheOn TRUE/FALSE (boolean) - Whether database query caching is enabled.
cacheDir The absolute server path to your database query cache directory.
charset The character set used in communicating with the database.
DBCollat

The character collation used in communicating with the database

Note

Only used in the ‘MySQLi’ driver.

swapPre A default table prefix that should be swapped with dbprefix. This is useful for distributed applications where you might run manually written queries, and need the prefix to still be customizable by the end user.
schema The database schema, defaults to ‘public’. Used by PostgreSQL and ODBC drivers.
encrypt

Whether or not to use an encrypted connection.

  • ‘sqlsrv’ and ‘pdo/sqlsrv’ drivers accept TRUE/FALSE
  • ‘MySQLi’ and ‘pdo/mysql’ drivers accept an array with the following options:
    • ‘ssl_key’ - Path to the private key file
    • ‘ssl_cert’ - Path to the public key certificate file
    • ‘ssl_ca’ - Path to the certificate authority file
    • ‘ssl_capath’ - Path to a directory containing trusted CA certificates in PEM format
    • ‘ssl_cipher’ - List of allowed ciphers to be used for the encryption, separated by colons (‘:’)
    • ‘ssl_verify’ - TRUE/FALSE; Whether to verify the server certificate or not (‘MySQLi’ only)
compress Whether or not to use client compression (MySQL only).
strictOn TRUE/FALSE (boolean) - Whether to force “Strict Mode” connections, good for ensuring strict SQL while developing an application.
port

The database port number. To use this value you have to add a line to the database config array.

$default['port'] = 5432;

Note

Depending on what database platform you are using (MySQL, PostgreSQL, etc.) not all values will be needed. For example, when using SQLite you will not need to supply a username or password, and the database name will be the path to your database file. The information above assumes you are using MySQL.