Application Structure

To get the most out of CodeIgniter, you need to understand how the application is structured, by default, and what you can change to meet the needs of your application.

Default Directories

A fresh install has six directories: /application, /system, /public, /writable, /tests and /docs. Each of these directories has a very specific part to play.

application

The application directory is where all of your application code lives. This comes with a default directory structure that works well for many applications. The following folders make up the basic contents:

/application
        /Config         Stores the configuration files
        /Controllers    Controllers determine the program flow
        /Helpers        Helpers store collections of standalone functions
        /Language       Multiple language support reads the language strings from here
        /Libraries      Useful classes that don't fit in another category
        /Models         Models work with the database to represent the business entities.
        /Views          Views make up the HTML that is displayed to the client.

Because the application directory is already namespaced, you should feel free to modify the structure of this directory to suit your application’s needs. For example, you might decide to start using the Repository pattern and Entity Models to work with your data. In this case, you could rename the Models directory to Repositories, and add a new Entities directory.

Note

If you rename the Controllers directory, though, you will not be able to use the automatic method of routing to controllers, and will need to define all of your routes in the routes file.

All files in this directory live under the App namespace, though you are free to change that in application/Config/Constants.php.

system

This directory stores the files that make up the framework, itself. While you have a lot of flexibility in how you use the application directory, the files in the system directory should never be modified. Instead, you should extend the classes, or create new classes, to provide the desired functionality.

All files in this directory live under the CodeIgniter namespace.

public

The public folder holds the browser-accessible portion of your web application, preventing direct access to your source code. It contains the main .htaccess file, index.php, and any application assets that you add, like CSS, javascript, or images.

This folder is meant to be the “web root” of your site, and your web server would be configured to point to it.

writable

This directory holds any directories that might need to be written to in the course of an application’s life. This includes directories for storing cache files, logs, and any uploads a user might send. You should add any other directories that your application will need to write to here. This allows you to keep your other primary directories non-writable as an added security measure.

tests

This directory is setup to hold your test files. The _support directory holds various mock classes and other utilities that you can use while writing your tests. This directory does not need to be transferred to your production servers.

docs

This directory holds the CodeIgniter documentation. The user_guide subfolder contains a local copy of the User Guide, and the api_docs subfolder contains a local copy of the CodeIgniter components API reference.

Modifying Directory Locations

If you’ve relocated any of the main directories, you can let the application know the new location within the main index.php file.

Starting around line 50, you will find three variables that hold the location to the application, system, and writable directories. These paths are relative to index.php.